Taxation


Taxation
   During the period of the Republic, many kinds of direct and indirect taxes were levied, for example, on consumption and lux ury articles and on property transfers. The provinceswere entitled to levy their taxes in view of their respective shares (quoten) in the re quired annual taxation of the Generaliteit. To collect the taxes, the authorities often resorted to a system of leasing to private persons. It was only after the new constitution in 1798, during the Batavian Republic, that attempts at unifying the taxation system were made. During the reign of King Louis Napoleon, a national system of tax collection based on modern principles was introduced in 1809. In the present national taxation system, direct taxes are levied on income, wages, and properties. Indirect taxes, such as value-added tax (VAT) and excises on goods, are collected from businesses, which then pass them on to the consumers and end users of products and services. Contributions and retributions are a third kind of tax, such as road taxes or fees. Another distinction among taxes is between progressive and proportional rates. In this respect, social policy and conceptions of an equitable distribution of income play their roles. Recently there has been a tendency for taxes to shift from income tax to VAT, as a consequence of the need to adjust to European standards, because of membership in the European Union (EU). Tax policy has to cope with the problem of the growing and heavy burden of national as well as local and regional taxes. Politicians realized also that taxes must be capped to avoid stifling hard work and in vestment. Dutch tax rates on income include several brackets. In 2001, a new tax system was introduced for private persons, with three so-called boxes. The first box includes taxable income and houses (with several brackets), the second concerns income from profits (at a tax rate of 25 percent), and the third, income from savings and in vestments (tax rate: 30 percent from 4 percent return).

Historical Dictionary of the Netherlands. . 2012.

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  • taxation — tax‧a‧tion [tækˈseɪʆn] noun [uncountable] TAX 1. the act or system of charging taxes: • These reforms will occur at the same time as changes in banking and taxation. • Reinvested profits would be exempt from taxation (= would not be taxed ) …   Financial and business terms

  • taxation — [ taksasjɔ̃ ] n. f. • taussacion 1283; lat. taxatio ♦ Le fait de taxer (I); son résultat. 1 ♦ Fixation par voie administrative, réglementaire, du prix maximum (parfois minimum) applicable à certains biens, certains services. Taxation de denrées… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • taxation — tax·a·tion n 1: the action of taxing: as a: the imposition of taxes b: the judicial determination of costs 2 a: revenue obtained from taxes b: the amount assessed as a tax 3: a particular system of taxing …   Law dictionary

  • Taxation — refers to the act of a taxing authority actually levying tax. Taxation as a term applies to all types of taxes, from income to gift to estate taxes. It is usually referred to as an act; any revenue collected is usually called taxes. Taxation can… …   Investment dictionary

  • Taxation — Tax*a tion, n. [F. taxation, L. taxatio a valuing, estimation, from L. taxare. See {Tax}.] 1. The act of laying a tax, or of imposing taxes, as on the subjects of a state, by government, or on the members of a corporation or company, by the… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • taxation — Taxation. s. f. v. Il n a guere d usage qu au pluriel, & sign. Certains droits attribuez à quelques Officiers qui ont le maniement des deniers du Roy. Il a tant pour ses taxations. de tout l argent qui luy passe par les mains, il a cinq deniers… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

  • taxation — [tak sā′shən] n. [ME taxacion < MFr taxation < L taxatio < pp. of taxare: see TAX] 1. a taxing or being taxed 2. a tax or tax levy 3. revenue from taxes …   English World dictionary

  • Taxation — (v. lat.), Schätzung, Würdigung des Werthes eines Gegenstandes, bes. wenn sie im Processe od. sonst in Veranlassung eines juristischen Geschäftes geschieht. Die T. erfolgt durch Personen, welche entweder von den betheiligten Parteien eigens zu… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Taxation — (lat.), Schätzung oder Wertbestimmung einer zum Verkauf, zum Austausch oder zur Übergabe bestimmten Sache, geschieht auf Anordnung einer Staatsbehörde oder auf Veranlassung von Privatpersonen durch Taxatoren, Sachverständige, die von den Parteien …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • taxation — (n.) early 14c., imposition of taxes, from Anglo Fr. taxacioun, O.Fr. taxacion, from L. taxationem (nom. taxatio), noun of action from pp. stem of taxare (see TAX (Cf. tax) (v.)) …   Etymology dictionary

  • taxation — ► NOUN 1) the levying of tax. 2) money paid as tax …   English terms dictionary